JJES » JJES Issues
 Yarmouk Journals
Editorial Board
Consulative Board
Manuscript Submission
Publication Guidelines
JJES Issues  
Contact Address


القدرة التنبؤية لدرجة استخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي ومستوى الصلابة النفسية في الطلاق العاطفي لدى عينة من المتزوجات العاملات في الجامعة الأردنية

عبد الله المهايرة و أمل الحسون

الجامعة الأردنية- الأردن


JJES,17(3), 2021, 375-391

ملخص: هدفت الدراسة الحالية إلى الكشف عن درجة استخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي ومستوى الصلابة النفسية ومستوى الطلاق العاطفي، والتعرف على القدرة التنبؤية لدرجة استخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي ومستوى الصلابة النفسية في الطلاق العاطفي لدى عينة من المتزوجات العاملات في الجامعة الأردنية. تكونت عينة الدراسة من (350) متزوجة عاملة في الجامعة الأردنية ومستشفى الجامعة الأردنية، تم اختيارهن بالطريقة العشوائية الطبقية خلال الفصل الأول للعام الجامعي 2018 / 2019. ولتحقيق أهداف الدراسة، طور الباحثان ثلاثة مقاييس هي: مقياس درجة استخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي، ومقياس مستوى الصلابة النفسية، ومقياس الطلاق العاطفي. وأظهرت نتائج الدراسة درجة مرتفعة لاستخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي ومستوى متوسطًا لكل من الصلابة النفسية والطلاق العاطفي. كما أظهرت النتائج أن استخدام مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي أسهم بما نسبته (54%) في الطلاق العاطفي وبعلاقة طردية بين المتغيرين. فيما أظهرت النتائج أن الصلابة النفسية أسهمت بما نسبته (10%) في الطلاق العاطفي وبعلاقة طردية بين المتغيرين.‏

الكلمات المفتاحية:
مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي، الصلابة النفسية، الطلاق العاطفي، المتزوجات العاملات).‏


Predictive Ability of the Degree of Social Media Websites Use and Level of Psychological Hardness in Emotional Divorce among a Sample of Married Women Working at the University of Jordan

Abdallah Almahaireh and Amal Alhasoun, the University of Jordan, Jordan.


Abstract: This study aimed to explore the degree of use of social media ‎websites and the levels of psychological hardness and ‎emotional divorce, as well as to identify predictive ability of the ‎degree of social media websites use and level of psychological ‎hardness in emotional divorce among a sample of married ‎women working at the University of Jordan. The sample of the ‎study consisted of (350) married women working at the ‎University of Jordan in the first semester of 2018/2019. To ‎achieve the aims of the study, the researchers developed three ‎measures: A measure of the degree of use of social networking ‎sites, a measure of psychological hardness, and a measure of ‎emotional divorce. The study results showed a high degree of ‎social media use and a medium level of both psychological ‎Hardness and emotional divorce. In addition, the degree of ‎social media use explained (54%) of emotional divorce, while ‎psychological Hardness explained only (10%) of it.


 (Keywords: Social Networking Websites, Psychological Hardness, Emotional Divorce, Working Married Women).



Abdelraheem, A. (2013). Social networks sites: Usage and effects. Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies, 7(4), 549-558.

Abdulrahman, H. (2017). Emotional separation and its relationship with irrational thinking among married people. Unpublished Master Thesis, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.

Abu Asaad, A. (2008). Marital and family counseling. Al-Shorouk for Publishing.

Abu Dary, M. (2019). Jordan is the first in the world in the use of social media platforms. Addustour. Retrieved from: https://www. addustour.com/articles.

Abu Nada, A. (2007). Psychological hardness and its relationship to life stress among Al-Azhar University students in Gaza. Unpublished Master Thesis, Al-Azhar University, Gaza, Palestine.

Abu Zaid, N. (2011). Family psychology. Alamakotob for Publishing and Distribution.

Al-Ayafi, A. (2012). Psychological hardness and stressful life events among a sample of orphans and regular students in Makkah and Laith governorate. Unpublished Master Thesis, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Fatlawi, A., & Jabbar, W. (2012). The emotional divorce and its relation with life styles of married employees in the government's offices. Al-Qadisiya Journal for Humanities, 15(1), 211-260.

Al-Furaiji, H. (2014). Social media: An educational jurisprudence view. Dar Al-Mahjah Al-Bayda.

Al-Ghurair, A., & Abu Asaad, A. (2009). Stress coping. Dar Al-Shorouk for Publishing and Printing.

Al-Hamad, N., Al-Badarneh, M., & Al-Momani, H. (2017). Psychological hardness and its relationship with the inability to psychological and academic adjustment among married and unmarried female students. Dirasat Humanities and Social Sciences, 44, 15-31.

Al-Jawazneh, B. (2018). The emotional divorce among couples and its impact on psychological adjustment of children in the secondary-stage families with broken families in Al-Karak governorate. Journal of Education, 18(1), 384-413.

Al-Mutawa, A. (2015), the impact of the WhatsApp network on some variables among a sample of married couples in the Saudi community. Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 3(61), 74-89.

Al-Obeid, M. (2014). Social media and its impact on social relations. Al-Hikma Journal, 2(6), 150- 187.

Al-Sadhan, A. (2013). Family guidance guide 6: The problem of emotional divorce and how the family guide deals with it. King Fahd National Library for Publishing.

Al-Shamrani, A. (2015). Social media networks’ usage intensity and its relationship to the marital adjustment among teachers. Unpublished Master Thesis, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.

Al-Shehri, H. (2013). The effects of using electronic social networks on social relationships "facebook and twitter as examples: A survey study on a sample of King Abdul Aziz University \students in Jeddah. Unpublished Master Thesis, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Smeheen, F. (2016). Marital adjustment and its relationship with psychological hardness and emotional maturity for married female teachers at the directorate of education of Al- Jamea district. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Al-Taher, T. (2016). Psychological hardness. Delta College Journal of Science and Technology, University of El-Imam El-Mahdi, 4, 111-146.

Al-Tunbali, A. (2016). The impact of spousal addiction to the internet on marital expatriation from the perspective of general practice for social work. The Journal of Social Workers, 6(65), 17-20.

Al-Youssef, A. (2017). The impact of social media on family relationships in Irbid governorate, Unpublished Master Thesis, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.

Al-Zoubi, M. (2014). Divorce and the procedures followed in the fatwa department to obtain a divorce fatwa. Retrieved from: https://www. aliftaa.jo/Research.aspx?ResearchId=73#.Xrp-dGXVLIU.

Arab Social Media Report. (2015). Retrieved from: http://www.wpp.com.

Ashash, N. (2018). Methods of facing psychological stress and its relationship with psychological stiffness among university students. Journal of the Faculty of Education, Port Said University, 23, 401-430.

Askar, A. (2000). Stress of life and methods of confronting it: Mental and physical health in the era of anxiety. Dar Al-Kitab Al-Hadith.

Bartone, P., Kelly, D., & Matthews, M. (2013). Psychological hardness predicts adaptability in military leaders: A prospective study. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 21(2), 200-210.

Boumediene, Aajib. (2016), Family and social consequences of women working outside the home: A field study on a sample of women working in Laghouat. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oran 2, Bir El-Jeer, Algeria.

Camellia, E. (2016). Psychology of working women. Dar AL-Nahda for Printing and Publishing.

Clarke-Stewart, A., & Brentano, C. (2006). Divorce: Causes and consequences. Yale University Press.

Clayton, R., Nagourney, A., & Smith, J. (2013). Cheating, breakup and divorce: Is facebook use to blame? Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16(10), 717-720.

Crow, M. (2005). Overcoming relationship problems: A self-help guide using cognitive behavioral techniques. London: Constable and Robenson.

Fadlullah, W. (2010). Facebook impact on society. Khartoum: Shams Al-Nahda Blog.

Fahmi, D. (2018). Criminal protection from misuse of social media. Cairo: Dar Al-Nahda.

Fearon, J. (2003). Ethnic and cultural diversity by country. Journal of Economic Growth, 8(2), 195-222.

Ghazal, M., & Shaobi, N. (2014). The impact of social media on the development of political awareness among university students. Unpublished Master Thesis, University Kasdi, Ouargla, Algeria.

Hadi, A. (2012). Reasons for emotional divorce among Iraqi families according to some variables. Al-Ustath Journal, 2(1), 435-462.

Hill, M., Stafford, A., Seaman, P., Ross, N., & Daniel, B. (2007). Parenting and resilience. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Judkins, S. (2003). Hardness, stress and coping strategies among mid-level nurse managers: implications for continuing higher education. Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Texas, Denton.

Kasemi, N. (2012). Family sociology and social change. Dar Al-Kitab Al-Hadith.

Khoury, N. (2008). Marriage is a psychosocial approach. Lebanese Dar Al-Manhal for Publishing and Distribution.

Kumari, A., & Verma, J. (2015). Impact of social networking sites on social interaction. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 4(2), 55-62.

Lambert, V., Lambert, C., & Yamase, H. (2003). Psychological hardness, workplace stress and related stress-reduction strategies. Nursing & Health Sciences, 5(2), 181-184.

Lkhal, H., & Zaidi, R. (2017). The impact of using social media on family relationships: Facebook as a model. Master Thesis, University of Ziane Achour, Djelfa, Algeria.

Maddi, S. (2013). Hardness turning stressful circumstances into resilient growth. Springer: New York, London, Dordrecht, Heidelberg.

Mansour, A. (2009). Factors contributing to emotional separation among married couples and its consequences from the perspective of a sample of wives in Jordan. Doctoral Dissertation, Amman Arab University, Amman, Jordan.

Masoudan, A., & Warim, E. (2012). Use of new media and communication and its relationship to social isolation: An analytical study of the impact of social networks on family communication. Education Journal - Al-Azhar University, 15(1), 739-767.

Momen, D. (2004). Family and family therapy. El-Sahab for Publishing.

Mukhaimar, I. (2002). Psychometric hardness scale. The Anglo-Egyptian Bookshop.

Najdawi, A. (2018). The view of women in emotional divorce: Applied study on a sample of Jordanian women. Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences, 45(2), 43-58.

Nejadat, A. (2014). The use of "Facebook" by married working women in Jordanian universities and its role in achieving satisfaction: A survey study. Jordan Journal of Social Sciences - Jordan, 7(1),103-131.

Odah, M. (2010). Traumatic experience and its relationship to the methods of adaptation to stress and social support and mental toughness to the children in the Gaza Strip border areas. Unpublished Master Thesis, Islamic University, Gaza, Palestine.

Parvin, S., Kalantari, A., Davoodi, M., & Mohammadi, F. (2011). Emotional divorce in Tehran city. International Journal of Social Sciences, 1(4), 305-311.

Radcliffe, D., & Bruni, P. (2019). State of social media: Middle East 2018. Researchgate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/330842301_State of Social Media Middle East 2018.

Rady, Z. (2008). Psychological Hardness among the mothers of Al Aqsa Intifada martyrs and its relationship with some variables. Unpublished Master Thesis, The Islamic University, Gaza, Palestine.

Rahmani, N., & Dhimi, Z. (2012). Adolescent internet education. Amman: Ibn Battuta House for Publishing.

Rodriguez, N., Smith, H., & Zatz, M. S. (2009). Youth is enmeshed in a highly dysfunctional family system: Exploring the relationship among dysfunctional families, parental incarceration and juvenile court decision-making. Criminology, 47(1), 177-208.


Rosberg, G., & Rosberg, B. (2003). Divorce-proof your marriage. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

Sadeq, A. (2004). Love without marriage and marriage without love. Dar Al-Sahwah for Publishing and Distribution.

Sedghijalal, A., & Fathi, S. (2015). The virtual social networks and couples commitment. International Journal of Social Sciences, 5(3), 51-60.

Shakra, A. (2014). New media: Social media. Osama for Publishing and Distribution.

Shehata, M. (2015). An eclectic approach to alleviating the marital alienation of newly married internet users. Journal of Social Service: Association of Egyptian Specialists, 45, 331-377.

Shosha, N. (2015). The effect of communication on the disintegration of society and the family. Al-Bayan Magazine, issue 341 (October - November). Retrieved from: http:// albayan. co.uk /MGZArticle2. aspx?ID=4673.

Shwaiter, K., & Al-Zaqai, N. (2015). Psychological hardness among mothers working in the education sector in Oran: A descriptive psychometric study. Journal of Psychological and Educational Studies, 4, 47-66

Siddiqui, S., & Singh, T. (2016). Social media: Its impact with positive and negative aspects. International Journal of Computer Applications, Technology and Research, 5(2), 71-75.

Subhi, S. (2016). The psychometric properties of psychological hardness scale among a sample of widows. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 252-267.

Supreme Judge Department. (2017). Annual statistical report for 2017. Retrieved from: https:  sjd.gov.jo/Pages/viewpage.aspx?page-ID=206.

Theban, N. (2009). Divorce and marriage problems. Rislan for Publishing.

Yakhlof, O. (2001). Psychology of health psychological and behavioral bases of health. Dar Al Thaqafa.