JJMLL » JJMLL Issues

 

 Jordanian Journals
Home
Editorial Board
International Advisory Board
Scope and Description
Manuscript Submission
Manuscript Organization  
Publication Ethics  
Copyright  
Offprints  
Disclaimer  
JJMLL Issues  
Contact Address

 

      

     
   

A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Pictures in ELT Textbooks:
Modes of Communication in Focus
 


 

 

Abstract

 

There is a tight nexus between visual literacy and textbook picture representations. This is of paramount importance when textbooks in general and ELT textbooks, in particular, are under question. To conduct a visual and verbal discourse analysis based on modes of communication, ELT textbook pictures were analyzed under the assumption that visual and verbal discourse interacts with reflected modes of communication. To this end, 50 ELT textbook pictures were used as the corpus and analyzed according to KvL's (2006) visual images analytical strategies in multimodal texts and Halliday’s (1985) transitivity system for verbal analysis of textbook pictures. The analysis of multimodal resources revealed that the analyzed visual images were used to represent non-human images; close-up images, frontal images, left-right compositions were the most frequent visual modes in the selected pictures. In the case of verbal mode, the relational main-type and verbal minor-type level with 39% and 2% were the most and least frequent verbal strategies, respectively. The findings might have significant theoretical and pedagogical implications for scholars, L2 teachers, and ELT textbook designers to consider the potential of using multimodal resources for non-pedagogical purposes while integrating textbook visual images and verbal strategies to create meanings.

Keywords: Multimodal Discourse Analysis, Transitive System’s Processes, Visual Images Interpretive Strategies, Modes of Communication, ELT Textbooks..

Authors: Shafagh Ghoushchi, Hooshang Yazdani, Hamidreza Dowlatabadi, Moussa Ahmadian

 Doi: https://doi.org/10.47012/jjmll.13.4.2

 

Cited by: Jordan Journal of Modern Languages and literatures (JJMLL) 2021, 13 (4): 623-644

 

Full text

 

 

References

Amini, Seyyedeh-Mahsa, Moussa Ahmadian, Hooshang Yazdani, and Hamid-Reza Dowlatabadi. "Multiple Intelligences (MI) Representation in Prospect Series and the MI Profile of Iranian Junior High School Students: A Compatibility Perspective. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies 7 (2): 52–62. DOI.org/11.1207/s12559-018-9506-3.

Ahmadian, Moussa, and Hooshang Yazdani. 2013. A Study of the Effects of Intertextuality Awareness on Reading Literary Texts: The Case of Short Stories." Journal of Educational and Social Research 3 (2): 155. DOI:10.5901/jesr.2013.v3n2p155.

Amerian, Majid, and Alimorad Khaivar. 2014. Textbook Selection, Evaluation and Adaptation Procedures. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World 6 (1): 523-533. DOI.org/10.1007/s10805-018-9316–3.

Andrä, Christian, Brian Mathias, Anika Schwager, Manuela Macedonia, and Katharina von Kriegstein. 2020. Learning Foreign Language Vocabulary with Gestures and Pictures Enhances Vocabulary Memory for Several Months Post-Learning in Eight-Year-Old School Children. Educational Psychology Review 32 (3): 815-850.  DOI.org/10.1007/s10648-020-09527.

Anstey, Michèle, and Geoff Bull. Teaching and Learning Multiliteracies: Changing Times, Changing Literacies. International Reading Association. 800 Barksdale Road, PO Box 8139, Newark, DE 19714-8139, 2006.

Bahari, Akbar. 2018. Sacred Text Motivation for General L2 Learners: A Mixed Methods Study. Journal of Academic Ethics 16 (4): 377-407. DOI.org/10.1007/s10805-018-9316–3

Baldry, Anthony, and Paul J. Thibault. 2006. Multimodal Transcription and Text Analysis (London: Equinox). Developing Multimodal Texture 55.

Ball, Phil, Keith Kelly, and John Clegg. 2016. Putting CLIL into Practice: Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers. Oxford University Press.

Canning, Christine. 1997. Theoretical use of Visuals." C. Canning & J. Koester, Illustrated Visual Aids for Academic English 1 (1): 2-4.

Canning, Christine. 1998. Visual support and language teaching. TESOL Arabia News 5 (4): 3-4. DOI:11.1580/14681366.2019.2054411.

Cimasko, Tony, and Dong-shin Shin. 2017. Multimodal Resemiotization and Authorial Agency in an L2 Writing Classroom. Written Communication 34 (4): 387-413.

Debes, John L. 1969. The loom of visual literacy--An overview. Audiovisual Instr.

Dzekoe, Richmond. 2017. Computer-Based Multimodal Composing Activities, Self-Revision, and L2 Acquisition Through Writing. Language Learning & Technology 2 (2): 73-95. DOI.org/10.1080/095 40253.2014.91640 0.

Elmiana, Dewi Satria. 2019. Pedagogical Representation of Visual Images in EFL Textbooks: A Multimodal Perspective. Pedagogy, Culture & Society 27 (4): 613-628. DOI:11.1080/10048 1366.2019.1569550.

Fernandez-Fontecha, Almudena, Kay L. O’Halloran, Peter Wignell, and Sabine Tan. 2020. Scaffolding CLIL in the Science Classroom via Visual Thinking: A Systemic Functional Multimodal Approach. Linguistics and Education 55: 100788. DOI.org/10.1016/j.linged.2019.100788

Genesee, Fred, and Else Hamayan. 2016. CLIL in Context Practical Guidance for Educators. Cambridge University Press.

Haiyan, Lai. 2018. Image-Text Relations in Junior High School EFL Textbooks in China: A Mixed-Methods Study. Journal of Language Teaching and Research 9 (6): 1177-1190.. DOI: http://dx.DOI.org/10.17507/jltr.0906.07.

Halliday, Michael. Alexander Kirkwood, and Christian MIM Matthiessen. 2013. Halliday's introduction to functional grammar. Routledge.

Hişmanoğlu, Murat. 2005. Semiotic elements and Difficulties in Teaching Vocabulary Items. Dil Dergisi 128: 51-68.

Jiang, Lianjiang. 2018. Digital Multimodal Composing and Investment Change in Learners' Writing in English as a Foreign Language. Journal of Second Language Writing 40: 60-72. DOI.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2018.03.002.

Joo, Sun. Jung, Alice Chik  and Emilia Djonov. 2019. The construal of English as a Global Language in Korean EFL Textbooks for Primary School Children. Asian Englishes 22 (1): 68-84. DOI:10.1080/13488678. 2019.1627636.

Konomi, Dorela Kacauni. 2014. Using Visual Materials in Teaching Vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms with Young Learners. Proceedings of the international conference on new perspectives in science education, pp. 256-260. Webster.

Kress, Gunther. 2003. Literacy in the new media age. Routledge.

Kress, Gunther and Theo Van Leeuwen. 2006. The Grammar of Visual Design (2ndeds)." London & New York: Routledge. Taylor Francis Group.

Kusumaningputri, Reni, and Handoyo Puji Widodo. 2018. Promoting Indonesian University Students' Critical Intercultural Awareness in Tertiary EAL Classrooms: The Use of Digital Photograph-Mediated Intercultural Tasks. System 72: 49-61. DOI:10.1016/j.system.2017.10.003.

Sipe, Lawrence R. 1998. How Picture Books Work: A Semiotically Framed Theory of Text-Picture Relationships. Children's Literature in Education 29 (2): 97-108. DOI.org/10.1023/ A:1022459009182.

Lim, Jungmin, and Charlene Polio. 2020. Multimodal Assignments in Higher Education: Implications for Multimodal Writing Tasks for L2 Writers. Journal of Second Language Writing 47: 100713. DOI.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2020.100713.

Liu, Jing. 2013. Visual Images Interpretive Strategies in Multimodal Texts. Journal of Language Teaching & Research 4 (6).

Machin, David. 2007. Introduction to multimodal analysis. London: Hodder

Mahdi, Hassan Saleh, and Mohammed Ahmed Ibraheem Gubeily. 2018. The Effect of Using Bizarre Images as Mnemonics to Enhance Vocabulary Learning. Journal of Social Studies 24 (1): 113-135. DOI.org/10.20428/JSS.24.1.5

Mahfouz, Adel Refaat. 2013. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Police News Story Framing In Two Egyptian Newspapers before January 25 Revolution." European Scientific Journal 9 (8). DOI: 10.1111/ijal.12237.

Masinambow, E. K. M., and Rahayu S. Hidayat. 2001. Semiotik: Mengkaji tanda dalam artifak. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Mayer, Katja M., Izzet B. Yildiz, Manuela Macedonia, and Katharina von Kriegstein. 2015. Visual and Motor Cortices Differentially Support the Translation of Foreign Language Words. Current Biology 25 (4): 530-535.

McCullagh, Marie. 2010. An initial Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Set of Published Materials for Medical English. Research for Materials Development in Language Teaching: Evidence for Best Practice: 381-393.

Mendoza, Jean, and Debbie Reese. 2001. Examining multicultural picture books for the early childhood classroom: Possibilities and pitfalls." Early Childhood Research & Practice 3 (2): n2. DOI.org/10.1007/s12119-018-9526-2.

Moghtadi, Laleh. 2013. Visual Elements Used in Iran EFL High School Textbooks. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research 1 (1): 45-56. DOI: 11.5239/ijal.120089.

Motschenbacher, Heiko. 2018. Non‐Nativeness as a Dimension of Inclusion: A Multimodal Representational Analysis of EFL Textbooks." International journal of applied linguistics 29 (3): 285-307. DOI: 10.1111/ijal.12237.

Mughal, Nazak Hussain, and Muhammad Safeer Awan. 2017. Ideo-Cultural Hegemony of Euro-Americans: Analysis of Presentation of Different Cultures in ELT Books in Pakistan. NUML Journal of Critical Inquiry 15 (2): 57-X. DOI: 11.1255/100875986.2089.1540089.

Peck, John, and Martin Coyle. 2002. Literary Terms and Criticism. 3rd edition. New York: Pargrave McMilan.

Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah, and Zahra Jozaghi. 2010. The Representation of Multiple Intelligences Types in the Top-Notch Series: A Textbook Evaluation." Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 14 (2): 59-84. DOI: 10.16875/stem.2019.20.2.48.

Roohani, Ali, and Ala Saeidfar. 2013. A Critical Evaluation of Visual Elements in Iranian Junior High School English Textbooks. Journal of Faculty of Letters and Humanities 8 (28): 80-96. DOI.org/10.1080/09540 253.2015.1102584.

Andrews, Richard, Mark Sadoski, and Allan Paivio. 2001. Imagery and Text--A Dual Coding Theory of Reading and Writing/Response. British Journal of Educational Psychology 72: 147.

Şenel, Müfit. 2007. The Semiotic Approach and Language Teaching and Learning. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies 3 (1): 117-132.

Serafini, Frank. 2008. The Pedagogical Possibilities of Postmodern Picturebooks. Journal of Reading. DOI.org/10.1504/IJCEELL.2011.040197.

Setyono, Budi, and Handoyo Puji Widodo. 2019. The Representation of Multicultural Values in the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture-Endorsed EFL Textbook: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Intercultural Education 30 (4): 383-397.DOI: 10.1080/14675986.2019.1548102.

Svensson, Birgitta. 2020. The enacting of Emotions in Two Picture Books: Interpretations through a Multimodal Discourse Analysis. International Journal of Language Studies 14 (2). DOI.org/10.1017/S0272263100015047.

Sinatra, Richard. 1986. Visual Literacy Connections to Thinking, Reading and Writing. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, 2600 South First St., PO Box 4709, Springfield, IL 62708-4709.

Sivandi, Zohre, and Hamid Reza Dowlatabadi. 2016. A Critical Discourse Analysis on Newspapers: The Case Study of Nuclear Program of Iran. International Journal of Research Studies in Education 5 (2): 93-103. DOI.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2009.00528.x.

Gray, Stewart, and Roxy Lee. 2019. Textbook Graffiti as a Critical, Multimodal Classroom Activity for Korean Elementary EFL Students. STEM Journal 20 (2). DOI: 10.16875/stem.2019.20.2.43.

Storch, Neomy. 2005. Collaborative Writing: Product, Process, and Students’ Reflections. Journal of second language writing 14 (3): 153-173. DOI.org/10.1016/j. jslw.2005.05.002

Tahririan, Mohammad Hassan, and Elham Sadri. 2013. Analysis of Images in Iranian High School EFL Course Books. Iranian Journal of Applied Linguistics 16 (2): 137-160.

Van Leeuwen, Theo, and Carey Jewitt, 2001. eds. The handbook of visual analysis. Sage.

Van Leeuwen, Theo. 2005. Introducing Social Semiotics. Psychology Press.

Vandommele, Goedele, Kris Van den Branden, Koen Van Gorp, and Sven De Maeyer. 2017. In-School and Out-Of-School Multimodal Writing as an L2 Writing Resource for Beginner Learners of Dutch." Journal of Second Language Writing 36: 23-36. DOI.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2017.05.010

Vungthong, Sompatu, Emilia Djonov, and Jane Torr. 2017. Images as a Resource for Supporting Vocabulary Learning: A Multimodal Analysis of Thai EFL Tablet Apps for Primary School Children." Tesol Quarterly 51 (1): 32-58. DOI: 10.1002/tesq.274

Weninger, Csilla, and Tamas Kiss. 2013. Culture in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Textbooks: A Semiotic Approach. TESOL quarterly 47 (4): 694-716.

Wigglesworth, Gillian, and Neomy Storch. 2009. Pair Versus Individual Writing: Effects on Fluency, Complexity And Accuracy. Language Testing 26 (3): 445-466.

Yildirim, Ilker, and Robert A. Jacobs. 2012. A Rational Analysis of the Acquisition of Multisensory Representations. Cognitive science 36 (2): 305-332. DOI.org/10.3758/BF03195564.

Zamani, Sirvan. 2016. Semiotics and Language Teaching (Teaching English to Kurd Students). World Scientific News 42: 293-305. DOI.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1996.tb01613.x.

Zammit, Katina. 2007. Popular Culture in the Classroom: Interpreting and Creating Multimodal Texts. Advances in language and education: 60-76.

Zhang, Meixiu. 2019. Towards a Quantitative Model of Understanding the Dynamics of Collaboration in Collaborative Writing. Journal of second language writing 45: 16-30. DOI.org/10.1016/j.jslw. 2019.04.001

Zhao, Fang, Wolfgang Schnotz, Inga Wagner, and Robert Gaschler. 2020. Texts and Pictures Serve Different Functions in Conjoint Mental Model Construction and Adaptation. Memory & cognition 48 (1): 69-82. DOI.org/10.3758/s13421-019-00962-0

 

Copyright © 2006-2021. All Rights Reserved, Yarmouk University