JJMLL » JJMLL Issues
Home Editorial Board International Advisory Board Scope and Description Manuscript Submission Manuscript Organization Publication Ethics Copyright Offprints Disclaimer JJMLL Issues Contact Address
ENGAGE Model as an Innovation in Teaching Speaking: A Case of
Cognitively More and Less Active EFL Learners
This study investigated the effect of using the ENGAGE Model on the speaking performance of cognitively more and less active EFL learners. The participants of the study were 60 intermediate level male EFL learners who were non-randomly selected from a pool of intermediate students (N=80) based on their performance on a standard version of Preliminary English Test (PET). The selected participants were assigned to the two groups of the ENGAGE Model and Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT). They were also specified in terms of their cognitive ability as cognitively more or less active learners based on their answers to a validated cognitive profile questionnaire. The results revealed that learners in the ENGAGE Model group outperformed students in the TBLT group in terms of their L2 speaking, regardless of whether they belonged to the cognitively less or more active group. It was also concluded students with a cognitively more active profile benefit more from the ENGAGE Model.
Keywords: Cognition, ENGAGE Model, Speaking Performance, TBLT, EFL Learners.
Cited by: Jordan Journal of Modern Languages and Literatures (JJMLL) 2021, 13 (4): 729-753
Adams, Nancy E. 2015. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Learning Objectives. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA 103 (3): 152.
Adams, Rebecca, and Jonathan Newton. 2009. TBLT in Asia: Constraints and Opportunities. Asian
Journal of English Language Teaching19 (1):1-17.
Akbari, Zahra. 2015. Current Challenges in Teaching/Learning English for EFL Learners: The Case of Junior High School and High School. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 199: 394-401.
Albino, Gabriel. 2017. Improving Speaking Fluency in a Task-Based Language Teaching Approach: The Case of EFL Learners at PUNIV-Cazenga. Sage open 7 (2): 2158244017691077.
Aljumah, Fahad Hamad.2011. Developing Saudi EEF Students' Oral Skills: An Integrative
Approach. English Language Teaching 4 (3): 84-89.
Anderson, Lorin W. and David R. Krathwohl. 2001. A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, And Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, abridged edition." White Plains, NY: Longman 5 (1).
Asaoka, Chitose.2019. Early Professional Development in EFL Teaching. Multilingual Matters.
Borg, Simon, and Yousif Alshumaimeri. 2019. Language Learner Autonomy in a Tertiary Context:
Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices. Language Teaching Research 23 (1): 9-38.
Buriro, Ghulam Ali, and Tariq Hayat. 2010. Task-Based Learning: an in-Class ELT Experiment. Journal of Educational Research (1027-9776) 13 (2).
Cacioppo, John T., Gary G. Berntson, and Howard C. Nusbaum. 2008. Neuroimaging as a New Tool in The Toolbox of Psychological Science. Current Directions in Psychological Science 17 (2): 62-67.
Celce-Murcia, Marianne.2001. "Language teaching approaches: An overview." Teaching English as a second or foreign language 2 (1): 3-10.
Chomsky, Noam.1979. Language and Responsibility. New York: Pantheon.
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly.1996. Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. 56: 107.
Coltheart, Max. 2001. Assumptions and Methods in Cognitive Neuropsychology. The Handbook of
Cognitive Neuropsychology: What Deficits Reveal about the Human Mind.3-21.
Ellis, Rod. 2003. Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford university press.
Ellis, Rod, and Rod R. Ellis. 2008. The study of Second Language Acquisition”. Oxford University.
Ellis, Rod. 2009. Task-Based Language Teaching: Sorting out the Misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 19 (3): 221-246.
Ellis, Rod. 2018. Reflections on Task-Based Language Teaching”. Multilingual Matters.
Ellis, Rod. W., Peter Skehan, Shaofeng Li., Natsuko Shintani and Craig Lambert. 2019. Task-Based Language Teaching: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Eysenck, Michael W., and Mark T. Keane. 2013. Cognitive Psychology: A Student’s Handbook. Psychology press.
Field, Andy. 2013. Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage.
Fodor, Jerry A. 1983.The Modularity of Mind. MIT press.
Glance, Dorea, Alessandra Rhinehart, and Amanda Brown. 2018. Learn, Expand, Engage: Amodel for Teaching Clinical Skills in the Helping Professions. Adult Learning 29 (3):104-114.
Ghaemi, Farid, and Esmaeil Hassannejad. 2015. Developing EFL Students' Speaking: Brainstorming vs. Role-Play. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW) 8(4): 211-221.
Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh, Azam Razavi, and Akram Hosseini. 2018. TELL (Technology-Enhanced Language Learning) in Iranian High Schools: A Panacea for Emotional and Motivational
Detriments. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature 7 (4): 92-100.
Halsey, Richard. W. 2016. The first ten things I learned in the wilderness. Stop talking at me. Retrieved from www.californiachaparral.org/naturecenters.html.
Halsey, Richard W., Victoria W. Halsey, and Rochelle Gaudette. 2018. Connecting Californians with the Chaparral. Valuing Chaparral: 95-322. Springer, Cham.
Halsey, Victoria .W. 2011. Brilliance by design. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Halsey, Victoria. W. and Richard Halsey. W. 2017. Connecting Californians with the Chaparral through the ENGAGE Model.
Harley, Trevor A. 2004.Does Cognitive Neuropsychology Have a Future?Cognitive Neuropsychology 21 (1):3-16.
Hedge, Tricia.1993. Key Concepts In ELT. ELT journal 47 (3): 275-275.
Hismanoglu, Murat, and Sibel Hismanoglu.2011. Task-Based Language Teaching: What Every EFL
Teacher Should Do. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences 15: 46-52.
Hodge, David C., Marcia B. Baxter Magolda, and Carolyn A. Haynes.2009. Engaged Learning: Enabling Self-Authorship and Effective Practice. Liberal Education 95 (4): 16-23.
Housen, Alex, and Folkert Kuiken. 2009. Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency in Second Language
Acquisition. Applied linguistics 30 (4): 461-473.
Hughes, Rebecca, and Beatrice Szczepek Reed. 2016. Teaching and Researching Speaking. Routledge.
Jassem, Zaidan Ali, and Jassem Ali Jassem. 1997. Towards Better Speaking in English Major Classes: A Sociolinguistic Approach. The English Teacher 16: 1-10.
Kalyuga, Slava, and Anne-Marie Singh.2016. Rethinking the Boundaries of Cognitive Load Theory in Complex Learning." Educational Psychology Review 28 (4): 831-852.
Kang, Su-Ja. 2005. Dynamic Emergence of Situational Willingness to Communicate in a Second
Language. System 33 (2): 277-292.
Kilbourne, Chris. 2011. Connect, inspire, and ENGAGE: A model for improving safety training. Retrieved September, 2, 2019, from https://ehsdailyadvisor.blr.com
Kim, Jungtae, and Daniel A. Craig. 2012. Validation of a Video Conferenced Speaking Test. Computer Assisted Language Learning 25 (3): 257-275.
Kim, Son Chae, Laurie Ecoff, Caroline E. Brown, Ana‐Maria Gallo, Jaynelle F. Stichler, and Judy E.
Davidson. 2017. Benefits of a Regional Evidence-Based Practice Fellowship Program: A Test of The ARCC Model." Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 14 (2): 90-98.
Kojuri, Javad, Farnaz Takmil, Mitra Amini, and Parissa Nabeiei.2015. The use of Q2 Engage Model
(EQ2) for Educational Scholarship in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS)." Medical
Teacher 37 (9): 885-886.
Kunnu, Wichuda, and Aungkana Sukwises. 2014. Teaching Speaking Skills to Adult English Language Learners through ALM. International Journal of Social, Education, Economics and Management Engineering 8 (8): 2702-5.
Leahy, Wayne, and John Sweller. 2016. Cognitive Load Theory and the Effects of Transient Information on the Modality Effect. Instructional Science 44 (1): 107-123.
Leki, Ilona.2017. Undergraduates in a Second Language: Challenges and Complexities of Academic Literacy Development. Routledge.
Long, Michael H., and Graham Crookes. 1992. Three Approaches to Task-Based Syllabus Design. TESOL quarterly 26 (1): 27-56.
Miyake, Akira, Naomi P. Friedman, Michael J. Emerson, Alexander H. Witzki, Amy Howerter, and Tor D. Wager. 2000. The Unity and Diversity of Executive Functions and Their Contributions to Complex “Frontal Lobe” Tasks: A Latent Variable Analysis. Cognitive psychology 41 (1): 49-100.
Murphy, R. S. 2019. EFL course book innovation: the dynamics of L2 maturity, student engagement,
and cognitive development." PhD diss., University of Nottingham.
Nakatani, Yasuo. 2010. Identifying Strategies that Facilitate EFL Learners' Oral Communication: A
Classroom Study Using Multiple Data Collection Procedures. The Modern Language Journal 94 (1): 116-136.
Nodine, Thad R. 2016. How Did We Get Here? A Brief History of Competency-Based Higher Education in the United States. The Journal of Competency-Based Education 1 (1): 5-11.
Novak, Joseph D. 1990. Concept Maps and Vee Diagrams: Two Metacognitive Tools to Facilitate
Meaningful Learning. Instructional science 19 (1): 29-52.
Nunan, David. 2003."The impact of English as a global language on educational policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific Region." TESOL quarterly 37 (4): 589-613.
Nunan, David. 2006. Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Ernst KlettSprachen.
Oxford, Rebecca L. 1989."Use of language learning strategies: A synthesis of studies with implications for strategy training." System 17 (2): 235-247.
Ockey, Gary J., Dennis Koyama, Eric Setoguchi, and Angela Sun. 2015. The Extent to which TOEFL
iBT Speaking Scores Are Associated With Performance on Oral Language Tasks and Oral Ability Components for Japanese University Students. Language Testing 32 (1):39-62.
Pica, Teresa.1985. Input and Interaction in the Communicative Language Classroom: A Comparison of Teacher-Fronted and Group Activities. In S. Gass, & C. Madden (Eds.). Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Prabhu, Neiman Stern. 1987. Second language pedagogy. Vol. 20. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rabab’ah, Ghaleb, and Ronza Abu Rumman.2015. Hedging in Political Discourse: Evidence from the
Speeches of King Abdullah II of Jordan. Prague Journal of English Studies 4 (1): 157-185.
Richards, Jack Croft. 2008. Teaching Listening and Speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
Richards, Jack Croft, Jack C. Richards, and Willy A. Renandya, eds. 2002. Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge university press.
Rohani, Siti. 2011. Impact of Task-based Learning on Indonesian Tertiary EFL Students' Employment of Oral Communication Strategies. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 5 (10).
Rosenberg, Milton. J. and Abelson,Robert P. 2017. Symbolic Psycho-Logic: A Model of Attitudinal cognition. In A. Pelinka(Ed.). Attitude change: 86–115. London: Routledge.
Rundel, Philip W. 2018. California chaparral and its global significance. Valuing Chaparral: 1-27.
Safari, Parvin, and N. Rashida.2015. Teacher Education beyond Transmission: Challenges and
Opportunities for Iranian Teachers of English. Issues in Educational Research 25 (2):187-203.
Soboleva, Aleksandra V. 2019. A Cognitive Style-Inclusive Approach as a Means of Learner-Centered EFL Teaching Mode Implementation. Handbook of Research on Curriculum Reform Initiatives in English Education: 122-135. IGI Global.
Sternberg, RobertJ. and karin Sternberg. 2009. Cognitive Psychology (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA:Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Sun, Ron. 2007. The importance of cognitive architectures: An Analysis Based on CLARION. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 19 (2):159-193.
Sundqvist, Pia, and Liss Kerstin Sylvén.2016. Opening the Window for L2 English Development.
In Extramural English in Teaching and Learning: 179-213. Palgrave Macmillan, London.
Tani, Massimiliano. 2005. Quiet, but only in class: Reviewing the in-Class Participation of Asian
Students. Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australia Conference,
Sydney, New South Wales. Retrieved September 5: 2007.
Toro, Vanessa, Gina Camacho-Minuche, Eliana Pinza-Tapia, and Fabian Paredes. 2019. The Use of the Communicative Language Teaching Approach to Improve Students' Oral Skills. English
Language Teaching 12 (1):110-118.
Underwood, Emma C., Janet Franklin, Nicole A. Molinari, and Hugh D. Safford. 2018. (Eds.). Valuing Chaparral. Berlin: Springer.
Van De Guchte, Marrit, Martine Braaksma, Gert Rijlaarsdam, and Peter Bimmel. 2018. Learning New
Grammatical Structures in Task-Based Language Learning: The Effects of Recasts and Prompts. The Modern Language Journal 99 (2): 246-262.
Waddington, Julie.2017. Competency-based ELT: Learning to Learn through our Storytelling Circle.
APAC ELT Journal (85): 16-26.
Watts, Patricia, and Amanda Huensch. 2012. Integrated Speaking, Listening and Pronunciation: Are
Textbooks Leading the Way. Proceedings of the 4th pronunciation in second language learning and teaching conference: 265-278.
Yamada, Kenji, and Kevin Knight.2001. A Syntax-Based Statistical Translation Model. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: 523-530.
Yang, Ya-Ting Carolyn, Ya-Chin Chuang, Lung-Yu Li, and Shin-Shang Tseng.2013. A Blended Learning Environment for Individualized English Listening and Speaking Integrating Critical
Thinking. Computers & Education 63: 285-305.
Zhang, Xi, Yao Meng, Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos, and Yongqiang Sun. 2019. Learning Analytics in
Collaborative Learning Supported by Slack: From the Perspective of Engagement. Computers in Human Behavior 92: 625-633.
Zheng, Xinmin, and Simon Borg. 2014. Task-Based Learning and Teaching in China: Secondary School Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices. Language teaching research 18 (2): 205-221.
Copyright © 2006-2021. All Rights Reserved, Yarmouk University