JJMLL » JJMLL Issues

 

 Jordanian Journals
Home
Editorial Board
International Advisory Board
Scope and Description
Manuscript Submission
Manuscript Organization  
Publication Ethics  
Copyright  
Offprints  
Disclaimer  
JJMLL Issues  
Contact Address

 

      

     
   

A Pragmatic Analysis of Criticism Strategies against Government Policies on Social Media in Jordan: A Gender-Based Investigation


 

 

Abstract

 

This study presents a pragmatic analysis of the speech act of criticism as used on Facebook and Twitter against government policies in Jordan. It examines the effect of gender on the participants’ choice of criticism strategies. The data obtained comprises 300 public posts, comments, and tweets. An adapted version of Nguyen’s (2005) framework of criticism strategies is used to analyse the data. The results reveal that the most frequently used strategies by the writers of the posts, comments, and tweets are sarcasm, identification of a problem, grievance/complaint to God, and negative evaluation, respectively. The results also showcase that men and women use some criticism strategies differently: Men tend to make more use of expression of uncertainty and asking/presupposing while women tend to use grievance/complaint to Allah and emojis/pictures. The study shows how language used on social media is a strong indicator of the distrust in the government-citizen relationship evident in the writers’ expression of uncertainty about the government’s decisions.

Keywords: Speech Act of Criticism, Media Discourse, Socio-Pragmatics, Government.

Authors: Sumaya Alshakhanbeh , Sharif Alghazo 

Doi: https://doi.org/10.47012/jjmll.14.2.3

 

Cited by: Jordan Journal of Modern Languages and Literatures (JJMLL) 2022, 14 (2): 263-285

 

Full text

 

 

References

Abdullah, Safaa. 2013. Pragmatic Transfer in the Speech Acts of Criticizing and Responding by EFL Speakers of Colloquial Egyptian Arabic. Journal of Literature and Human Science in Ismailia 4: 223-243.

Abu Taleb, A. 1995. Some lexical and syntactic features of the language functions of criticizing and refusing as used by students majoring in English at the University of Jordan. MA Thesis, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Al Kayed, M. 2018. Strategies of criticism and mitigation in Jordanian Arabic and British English: A socio-pragmatic study. PhD diss., University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Al-Haj Eid, Omar. A. 2021. A Socio-pragmatic Analysis of Taboo Language Using Animal Names in Facebook Messenger in the Jordanian Setting: A Gender-Based Study. Jordan Journal of Modern Languages and Literatures, 13(3), 411-430. Doi: https://doi.org/ 10.47012/jjmll.13.3.3

Al Hammuri, L. O. 2011. A pragmatic study of complaint and advice strategies used by Jordanian and American undergraduate university students: guidelines for teaching these speech acts. PhD diss., Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.

Alhassan, L. 2012. Threat strategies in the holy Quran: discourse approach. MA Thesis, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.

Al-Momani, Kawakib. 2016. Discourse Change in a Changing Society: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Advertisement in Jordan before and after the Arab Spring. Círculo de LingüísticaAplicada a la Comunicación 65: 3-43.

Al-shra, A. 2013. A sociolinguistic study of the speech act of criticism. MA thesis, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.

Al-Shorman, Ra'ed. 2016. Saudi and Jordanian Undergraduates' Complaining Strategies: A Comparative Intralanguage Educational Linguistic Study. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) 7 (1): 203 – 228.

Beebe, Leslie M., and Tomoko Takahashi. 1989. “Sociolinguistic variation in face-threatening speech acts." In The dynamic interlanguage, pp. 199-218. Springer, Boston, MA.

Blum-Kulka, Shoshana, Juliane House, and Gabriele Kasper. 1989. "Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood." NJ: Ablex.

Danesi, Marcel. 2016. The semiotics of emoji: The rise of visual language in the age of the internet. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Darwish, Abbas Dikan and Azhar Husayn Ubayd. 2011. Speech act of criticizing in (MSA) Arabic. Journal of Human Sciences 1 (6): 59-79.

DeClerck, Drew, and Susan Holtzman. 2018. To text or Talk: Does Communication Modality Matter when Providing Criticism to Others? Computers in Human Behavior 87: 109-120.

Deveci, Tanju. 2015. The Complaint Speech Act Set Produced by University Students Speaking English as a Foreign Language. Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ) 4 (1): 2161-2171.

Dress, Megan L., Roger J. Kristen E. Link, and Gina M. Caucci. 2008. Regional Variation in the Use of Sarcasm. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 27 (1): 71-85.

Drucker, Ari, Ofer Fein, Dafna Bergerbest, and Rachel Giora. 2014. On Sarcasm, Social Awareness, and Gender. International Journal of Humor Research 27 (4): 551-573.

El-Dakhs, Dina Abdel Salam, Fatima Ambreen, Maria Zaheer, and Yulia Gusarova. 2019. A Pragmatic Analysis of the Speech Act of Criticizing in University Teacher-Student Talk: The Case of English as a Lingua Franca. Pragmatics 29 (4): 493-520.

Fairclough, Norman. 1989. Language and Power. London: Longman.

Farnia, Maryam, and Hiba Qusay Abdul Sattar. 2016. A Sociopragmatic Analysis of the Speech Act of Criticism by Persian Native Speakers." International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) ​2 (3): 305-327.

Grundlingh, Lezandra. 2018. Memes as Speech Acts. Social Semiotics 28 (2): 147-168.

Hamdan, Hady. 2018. Strategies of expressing disagreement in Arabic by Jordanian and English speakers. PhD diss., University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Baloria, Vishal P., and Jonas Heese. 2018. The Effects of Media Slant on Firm Behavior. Journal of Financial Economics 129 (1): 184-202.

Hamdan, Hadi. J. 2021. The pragmatic functions of Facebook likes on status updates: Evidence from user perceptions. Jordan Journal of Modern Languages and Literatures 13 (3): 665-679. Doi: https://doi.org/ 10.47012/jjmll.13.4.4

Highfield, Tim, and Tama Leaver. 2016. Instagrammatics and Digital Methods: Studying Visual Social Media, from Selfies and Gifs to Memes and Emoji. Communication research and practice 2 (1): 47-62.

Hoa, Hoang Thi Xuan. 2007. Criticizing Behaviors by the Vietnamese and the American: Topics, Social Factors and Frequency. VNU Journal of Science: Foreign Studies 23 (3): 141-154.

Itakura, Hiroko, and Amy BM Tsui 2011. Evaluation in Academic Discourse: Managing Criticism in Japanese and English Book Reviews. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (5): 1366-1379.

Jauhari, Edy, Djatmika Djatmika, and Riyadi Santosa. 2020. Criticism in the Javanese Arek Cultural Community: Its Expression Context and Strategy Use. Pragmatics and Society 11 (4): 524-544.

Joiner, Richard, Juste Cuprinskaite, Lina Dapkeviciute, Helen Johnson, Jeff Gavin, and Mark Brosnan. 2016. Gender Differences in Response to Facebook Status Updates from Same and Opposite Gender Friends. Computers in Human Behavior 58: 407-412.

Jones, Steve, Sarah Millermaier, Mariana Goya-Martinez, and Jessica Schule. 2008. Whose Space is MySpace? A Content Analysis of Myspace Profiles.” First Monday 13 (9).

Junco, Reynol. 2013. Inequalities in Facebook Use. Computers in Human Behavior 29 (6): 2328-2336.

Katz James. 2008. Handbook of Mobile Communication Studies. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Kim, Cheonsoo, and Sung-Un Yang. 2017. Like, Comment, and Share on Facebook: How Each Behavior Differs from the Other. Public Relations Review 43 (2): 441-449.

Lakoff, Robin. 1973. Language and Woman's Place. Language in Society 2 (1): 45-79.

Mulac, Anthony, David R. Seibold, and Jennifer Lee Farris. 2000. Female and Male Managers’ and Professionals’ Criticism Giving: Differences in Language Use and Effects. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 19 (4): 389-415.

Nguyen, M. T. T. 2005. Criticizing and responding to criticism in a foreign language: a study of Vietnamese learners of English. PhD diss., University of Auckland, New Zealand).

Nguyen, Minh Thi Thuy. 2013. An Exploratory Study of Criticism Realization Strategies Used by NS and NNS of New Zealand English. Multilingua 32 (1): 103–130.

Papacharissi, Zizi. 2004. Democracy online: Civility, Politeness, and the Democratic Potential of Online Political Discussion Groups. New media & society 6 (2): 259-283.

Pavalanathan, Umashanthi, and Jacob Eisenstein. 2016. More Emojis, Less: The Competition for Paralinguistic Function in Microblog Writing. First Monday 21 (11).

Pitt, Christine S., Kirk A. Plangger, Elsamari Botha, Jan Kietzmann, and Leyland Pitt. 2019. How Employees Engage with B2B Brands on Social Media: Word Choice and Verbal Tone. Industrial Marketing Management 81:130-137.

Purnanto, Dwi, and Edy Jauhari. 2016. Speech Act Criticism as a Mechanism of Social Control in the Ethnic Madurese Community. Advanced Science Letters 22 (12): 4112-4115.

Raghuramaraju, A. 2009. Internal Criticism in the Democracies outside the West. Alternatives 34 (3): 339-358.

Riordan, Monica A. 2017. Emojis as Tools for Emotion Work: Communicating Affect in Text Messages. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 36 (5): 549-567.

Sauer, M. 2000. Complaints: A cross-cultural study of pragmatic strategies and linguistic forms. Paper presented at In AAAL Conference, Vancouver, Canada.

Shepherd, Ryan P. 2016. Men, Women, and Web 2.0 Writing: Gender Difference in Facebook Composing. Computers and Composition 39: 14-26.

Stark, Luke, and Kate Crawford. 2015. The Conservatism of Emoji: Work, Affect, and Communication. Social Media+ Society 1 (2):1-11.

Suharno, M. 2015. Interlanguage pragmatics of criticism among the students of sma 2 mejayan. PhD diss., Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta, Indonesia.

Suhay, Elizabeth, Emily Bello-Pardo, and Brianna Maurer. 2017. The Polarizing Effects of Online Partisan Criticism: Evidence from Two Experiments. The International Journal of Press/Politics 23 (1): 95 – 115.

Tracy, Karen, and Eric Eisenberg. 1990. Giving Criticism: A Multiple Goals Case Study. Research on Language & Social Interaction 24 (1-4): 37-70.

Vidal, Leticia, Gastón Ares, and Sara R. Jaeger. 2016. Use of Emoticon and Emoji In Tweets for Food-Related Emotional Expression. Food Quality and Preference 49: 119-128.

 

Copyright © 2006-2022. All Rights Reserved, Yarmouk University