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Assessment of Health Risks for Heavy Metals in Iraqi, Iranian and Turkish of Cheese Samples Available of Iraqi Markets

Ruaa R. Muneam  and  Ali Abid Abojassim

 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Iraq.

Corresponding Author:  Ali Abid Abojassim                               Email: ali.alhameedawi@uokufa.edu.iq

Doi: https://doi.org/10.47011/16.4.12

Cited by : Jordan J. Phys., 16 (4) (2023) 491-500

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Received on: 28/12/2021;                                                             Accepted on: 22/02/2022

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cr in a number of selected cheese samples in Iraqi markets, both locally produced and imported from Iran and Turkey. This assessment was carried out through the application of atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the current investigation, human health risk parameters, such as estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI), and carcinogenic risk (CR), were evaluated in all tested cheese samples. The evaluation of the r  lead assay for Iraqi, Iranian, and Turkish cheese samples yielded the following average values: 2.88 ± 0.43, 4.33 ± 0.57, and 3.89 ± 0.63 in units of mg/kg, respectively. In the case of cadmium, the values were 0.131 ± 0.02, 0.135 ± 0.03, and 0.167 ± 0.032, respectively, whereas chromium values were 0.015 ± 0.01, 0.183 ± 0.12, and 0.105 ± 0.07, respectively. The average values of HI for Iraqi, Iranian, and Turkish samples were 0.352 ± 0.05, 0.526 ± 0.07, and 0.483 ± 0.26, respectively. Additionally, the average values of CR×10-6 for Pb, Cd, and Cr concentrations in Iraqi samples were 0.004 ± 0.0006, 0.297 ± 0.05, and 0.09 ± 0.08, respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding values for Iranian and Turkish samples were 0.006 ± 0.0007, 1.13 ± 0.0007, and 0.0056 ± 0.7, and 0.005 ± 0.0008, 0.37 ± 0.07, and 0.65 ± 0.4, respectively. The heavy metal content in the Iraqi samples was lower than in Iranian and Turkish samples. Also, no statistical significance was found when comparing the Iranian and Turkish samples, where the P-value was greater than 0.05. Most of the values of Pb, Cd, and Cr concentrations were above the permissible limits according to EU regulations. However, the health risk parameters were within the globally accepted limits. Therefore, the majority of the investigated cheese samples have no health risks when used by Iraqi customers.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Health risk, Canned cheese, Iraqi markets.

 

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