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Heavy Metal Concentration in Harmattan Dust across Selected Stations in Nigeria

Francis Olatunbosun AWEDAa, Oluwasesan Adeniran FALAIYEb and

Timothy Kayode SAMSONc

 a Physics and Solar Energy Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria.

b   Department of Physics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

c Statistics Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author:  Francis O. AWEDA    Email: francisaweda@gmail.com; aweda.francis@bowen.edu.ng

Doi: https://doi.org/10.47011/16.4.4

Cited by : Jordan J. Phys., 16 (4) (2023) 413-422

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Received on: 16/04/2021;                                                          Accepted on: 06/03/2022

Abstract: The atmospheric assessment of elements and heavy metals concentrations contained in Harmattan dust samples is addressed in this research. From November 2017 to March 2018, suspended Harmattan dust was sampled using locally constructed Australian model gauges installed at each sampling points (Iwo, Oyo, Ilorin, Minna, Abuja, Lafia, and Jos). The gauges used stood around 5.0 meters tall and were made of 10.0 mm plastic bowls installed on a plastic container that was encased in a metal shell for support and stability. The concentrations of various elements and heavy metals included in suspended Harmattan dust across selected Nigerian cities were assessed using particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technology. The samples were subjected to statistical analysis using the ANOVA test in order to discover the significant differences between the positions of the elements in the sample. The suspended Harmattan dust samples revealed the presence of the following eighteen elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Zr. Particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) demonstrated that these elements are present in various amounts. The samples contain both heavy metals (Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Zr) and non-heavy metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Rb, and Sr). The study’s results indicate that the presence of heavy metals in Harmattan dust can be attributed to various activities within the country. Consequently, it is advised that further research be conducted in order to raise public awareness about environmental issues.

Keywords: Harmattan, PIXE, Elements, Dust, Heavy metals.

 

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